The deer has a gestation period of nine and a half months.

The brown rat, in Latin Rattus norvegicus, is often sheared over a comb with the house rat, also Rattus rattus. In contrast to the migration rate, the black rat is built narrowly, has large ears and eyes and a long tail. Their pointed snout also differs from that of the brown rat, which is more angular.

Originally living on trees, the black rat now often settles in large packs in attics – these often contain 20 to 60 animals. The rats’ diet is mainly plant-based through their stored food supplies from fruits and seeds.

Rattus rattus: Distribution in Germany

As the Lower Saxony State Office for Consumer Protection and Food Safety (LAVES) reports on its website, the house rat in western Germany was initially considered to be as good as extinct from the 1960s. In all of Europe it was almost supplanted by the brown rat. Even today, the house rat is a rarity in nature and therefore belongs "to the endangered species" in Europe, according to the Baden-Württemberg Health Department in an online information sheet about house rats.

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However, the LAVES reports: "In Lower Saxony, local occurrences of the house rat have been reported repeatedly over the past 40 years and in recent years it even seems to have spread again." However, it is not known how high the incidence in Germany is currently and whether Rattus rattus has also increasingly appeared in other federal states in recent years. Since the house rats are regularly brought in by overseas ships, they are more common in port cities.

After deer have mated in July or August, the offspring are born in May. The fawn then needs a while to regain its strength. The mother animal takes over the rearing during this time – outside help is only necessary in rare cases.

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Fawn found – what to do?

In contrast to other animal species, the newly mum roe deer does not look after the fawn around the clock. She lets the deer lie in the tall grass, where it can recover from the hardships of childbirth – well hidden from predators such as wild boars or foxes. But don’t worry: the deer comes by at regular intervals to suckle the fawn.

So if you discover a fawn while strolling through nature you don’t have to panic. Under no circumstances should you stroke the young – touching it transmits your smell, which drives the female deer away! However, anyone who sees rearing endangered, for example because the mother animal has not appeared for many hours or was found dead, can take care of the young animal.

Raising at home?

However, rearing deer permanently in a human environment is not an option. Only first aid is required in some cases. This includes giving liquids in the form of water or tea, for example chamomile or fennel tea. But first milk is essential! As a substitute for deer milk, colostrum from sheep or goats can be used.

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It is also important that finders determine the weight and age of the wild animal. To weigh a fawn, you can use a kitchen scale, baby scale, or letter scale. The age of a deer can be guessed by its coat color. In the first week of life, the white fawn spots stand out clearly from the rest of the fur, in the second week the contrast is no longer as noticeable because the white is no longer so bright. From the 14th to the 21st day of life, the spots can only be seen as bright points, later they fade completely – starting with the shoulder. Either way, you should take the fawn to a veterinarian or a wildlife hatchery.

The roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) is a welcome wild animal in this country that can often be seen in meadows, fields and corridors at dusk. Here you can find a profile of the graceful artifacts.

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Appearance and special features

Deer are between 90 and 140 centimeters long and can grow up to 85 centimeters high (shoulder height). While the males weigh between 20 and 30 kilograms, the females are somewhat lighter with 17 to 27 kilograms. The life expectancy of a deer is up to 12 years. In summer the deer wears its reddish brown summer fur; in winter this turns gray-brown with the appearance of winter fur. The white spot, called a mirror, on the rear is characteristic of the deer.

Habitat and way of life

Deer occur naturally in large parts of Europe and Asia. The deer prefers open fields and richly structured mixed and bush forests. Deer can also be found near human settlements. Not infrequently, and especially in winter, deer roam through gardens and parks as a cultural follower in search of food.

Deer are mainly crepuscular animals that mate with doe and their young in cold months "Jumps" merge, like the animal portal "A heart for animals" explained in an online report. The ungulates are avowed escape animals, too "Knickers type" called. If deer live in forests or in densely vegetated areas, they are less common in large groups. Only in open agricultural landscapes or often in wildlife parks do they join together to form jumps of up to 20 animals.

nutrition

The diet of the deer is extremely varied. The ruminants are pure herbivores and eat everything that occurs in nature: grasses, leaves, herbs, shoots, buds, berries and all plants rich in energy and nutrients. The menu only provides for easily digestible food.

Reproduction

The mating season (leaf time) of deer begins in July and ends in August. The deer has a gestation period of nine and a half months. In spring, usually in May, the fawns weighing one kilogram are born. Usually two are born, more rarely one or three.

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Enemies

The deer’s natural enemies are disappearing more and more. The biggest predator, the red deer, is a popular target for hunters and thus frees up more food and habitat for the deer. Capreolus capreolus are also part of the diet of lynxes, foxes, wolves and eagles. However, since their occurrence is also decreasing, the deer can reproduce well. The really most dangerous enemy for animals therefore remains humans.

Deer eat according to an extremely varied diet. The food of wild ruminants is purely vegetable and is carefully selected. Here you can find out interesting facts about the eating habits of the graceful wild animals.

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Deer only eat easily digestible food

Roe deer are ruminants who only eat easily digestible food. A deer weighing around 20 kilograms needs between two and four kilograms of green matter to cover its daily energy needs. The wild animals prefer plants that grow from the ground up to 120 centimeters high.

Since deer have a complicated digestive tract, the food must be easy to digest, high in energy and protein. The animals are endowed with an excellent sense of smell, with the help of which they select their food precisely.

Deer eat in five different grazing periods

The varied diet of a deer includes plants that are roughly divided into five grazing periods. According to detailed studies carried out in Switzerland, a deer feeds on buds and grass from mid-March to the end of April. Monocot herbs and foliage shoots are eaten from May to the end of June. Dicotyledonous herbs are eaten from June to mid-October. Deer eat most variably during this period. From mid-October to mid-December, the animals can enjoy ferns, bear moss, horsetail, blackberries and various buds.  

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From then on there are mostly grasses, blackberries and buds until the grazing periods repeat. This in the book "The deer in the cultural landscape" Of course, the list described by Fred Kurt only includes a rough breakdown which is deviated from in practice. Deer eat an incredibly high variety of plants during each month. Animal hunger does not stop at agriculture. They love to eat crops like oats, wheat or rapeseed and thus cause agricultural damage.

Deer in the garden often behave like well-known pachyderms in a china shop. The graceful animals are welcome in the wild, but can cause serious damage in the native greenery. Here’s how to drive away the beautiful wildlife.

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Deer in the garden: game browsing and other damage

Deer in the garden are the enemy of young buds, tree bark, fruit tree shoots and Co. – especially in the cold winter months, more and more deer get lost in gardens to look for food. Perennials, plant shoots and other delicacies are then simply eaten. Trees also suffer from the wild visitors – roebucks in particular like to rub their antlers on the tree bark to get rid of overdue bast. In technical terminology, this behavior is called sweeping. To prevent tree damage, you can protect the trees with special sleeves, which expand and so can grow with the trees.

Driving away deer: Several options

The magic remedy against deer is said to be blood meal. Blood meal is a nitrogen-rich organic fertilizer that consists of dried animal blood and various trace elements. And it actually helps: means consisting of a mixture of water and blood meal can drive deer away in the garden. Spray this thinly on your plants. The deer perceive the smell and flee because the blood meal signals danger to them.

Many supposed home remedies, however, do not work in the fight against deer. Whether it’s reflective CDs, barrier tapes, lamps or scarecrows distributed in the garden – the animals usually see through such tricks quickly and cannot be driven away in the long term. As a rule, hunger is greater than fear.

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Hedges also keep deer away.